Saturday, December 23, 2017

Methods of Raising Capital

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Methods of Raising Capital

(1). Shares:

Otherwise known as ‘ordinary shares’ these are shares in the issued capital of company which are held on terms that make the holder a ‘member’ of the company, entitled to vote at annual meetings and elect directors, and to participate through dividends in the profits of the company. The holders of the ordinary shares carry the residual risk of the business: they rank after debenture holders and preference shareholders for the payment of dividends and they are liable for losses, although this liability is limited to the value of the share and to the limit of guarantee given by them.

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(2). Debentures:

Fixed-interest securities issued by limited companies in return for long-term loans. The term is sometimes also used to refer to any title on a secured interest–bearing loan. Debentures are dated for redemption (i.e. repayment of their nominal value by the borrower to the holder), debentures are usually secured. Debenture interest must be paid whether the company makes a profit or not. In the event of non-payment debenture holders can force liquidation and rank ahead of all shareholders in their claims on the company’s assets. The interest which debentures bear depends partly on long-term rates of interest prevailing at the time and partly on the type of debenture, but will in any case, because of the lower risk involved is less than borne by preference shares. Debenture shares are most appropriate for financing companies whose profits are stable and which have substantial fixed assets, such property companies.

(3). Convertible debentures:

These carry an option at a fixed future date to convert the stock into ordinary shares at a fixed price. This option is compensated for by a lower rate of interest than an ordinary debenture, but convertible debentures are attractive since they offer the investor, without sacrificing his security, the prospect of purchasing equity shares cheaply in the future. For this reason, convertible debentures are issued at a time when it is difficult to raise capital either by equity or fixed interest securities. There are three ways in which a company may raise capital in the primary market.

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